Cesium/xenon dual beam depth profiling with TOF-SIMS: Measurement and modeling of M+, MCs+, and M2Cs2+  yields

J. Brison, T. Conard, W. Vandervorst, L. Houssiau

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Using Cs in the TOF-SIMS dual beam mode offers a semi-quantitative solution to depth profiling. Specifically, the use of these alkali ions strongly increases negative ion yields, decreases the positive ones and allows the formation of MCs and MCs clusters. Recently, Niehuis and Grehl [Proceedings SIMS XII (2000) 49] developed a new approach consisting of co-sputtering Xe and Cs in order to control the Cs surface concentration, thus allowing the optimization of elemental and cluster ion yields. We applied that technique on different well-defined samples (e.g. Si, SiO and AlO) and we monitored positive ions (e.g. Si, Al, CsSi, CsAl, CsO, CsO, CsSi, etc.) as a function of the sputtering beam Cs concentration. First, we observed the decrease of the elemental ions due to the work function lowering, as is predicted by the tunneling model. We then studied the behavior of the MCs and the MCs clusters. The MCs yield exhibits a maximum at a given Cs/Xe beam concentration ratio, depending on the studied element M and also on its chemical environment (e.g. Si and SiO), and on the energy of the Cs beam. In other words, it is hypothesized that this yield maximum is a consequence of the competition between the varying surface Cs coverage (direct concentration effect) and the decreasing ionization probability due to that varying Cs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 (1983) 127; Phys. Rev. B 29 (1984) 2311; K. Wittmaack, Proceedings SIMS VIII, (1992) 91]. Simple models based on the tunneling model were applied to interpret our results. The MCs signal behaves in a very different way. As shown by Gao [Y. Gao, Y. Marie, F. Saldi, H.N. Migeon, Proc. SIMS IX, (1994) 382], these clusters are predominant for electronegative elements and increase in a monotonous way with Cs beam concentration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)749-753
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2004


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