This article is a first article in a series of two articles exploring the bidirectional links between the concept of adaptation and of neuroscience. In this first article, first of all we will see that neurosciences can be seen as ambitious and all-powerful oscillating between a reductionist and dehumanizing threat or crystallizing some control fantasies. We will then see that society adapts itself to neurosciences methodologies and incorporate some discoveries in various fields so that we can ask ourselves about the neuro-society of tomorrow. Then we will see that the methodology of neurosciences themselves is frequently challenged and requires that everyone knows the limitations and not only stick to promises. After that, we will see that the adaptation seen as the promise of a determined and finite goal may be reassuring but is most unlikely.