Invasive infections caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a Gram-negative rod found in the oral cavity of healthy dogs and cats, are rare but they are increasing worldwide. We report a case of septic arthritis in a native knee joint due to this micro-organism. A 57-year-old man, with a well-controlled chronic HIV infection, attended the Emergency Department because of left knee pain and shivering without measured fever. A knee arthrocentesis and a computed tomography scan were performed, revealing septic arthritis with collections in the left leg posterior musculature. He was admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department for antibiotic treatment. Initial synovial fluid was inoculated in blood culture bottles, and the anaerobic one was positive after 63 h. Gram stain revealed fusiform Gram-negative rods, identified as C. canimorsus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) directly from the bottle. Identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and serotyping was performed by PCR, with serovar A as the outcome. Due to an unfavourable clinical course, the patient required two surgical cleanings and after appropriate antibiotic treatment he was discharged 2 months later.